High desert mid 50s swm wanted

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In the s, the United States came up with a plan to solve what it called the "Indian Problem. The year campaign failed to erase Native Americans, but its effects on Indian Country are still felt today. In the summer ofCharlotte and Clyde Day and six of their children boarded a train in northern Minnesota bound for Cleveland.

Except for Clyde, none of them had been on a train before. They'd never been to a big city, either. They wore their nicest clothes, and carried everything they owned in a few suitcases. They might have looked like they were going on vacation, but they were moving for good, leaving behind the place their family had lived for generations.

Sharon Day was 12, the oldest of the kids going along. She remembers the trip being a luxurious and grand adventure. Not all the kids were so excited. Her sister Cheryl was terrified. When they changed trains in Chicago, the station was the busiest place they had ever been. We'd never eaten dinner in a restaurant. And my dad was very clear with us, 'Do not go out of our sight. The idea to move had come from a Bureau of Indian Affairs officer, who told Clyde that a better life awaited him and his family in Cleveland.

There were good jobs, good schools, and even many people from his own tribe, the Bois Forte Band of Ojibwe, living there. Clyde took the offer home to his family. The Days were among aroundNative Americans to High desert mid 50s swm wanted one of the most recent and little-known traumas inflicted on Native peoples by the U. Between andit provided one-way transportation and a couple hundred dollars to Native Americans willing to move to a city.

One BIA commissioner would later call the program "an underfunded, ill-conceived program The goal was to move Native Americans to cities, where they would disappear through assimilation into the white, American mainstream. Then, the government would make tribal land taxable and available for purchase and development. The High desert mid 50s swm wanted was that eventually there would be no more BIA, no more tribal governments, no more reservations, and no more Native Americans. This campaign failed to wipe out tribes, but it did fuel a massive migration that fundamentally changed Indian Country.

Today, more than two-thirds of Native Americans live in cities, not on reservations. Economic and psychological wounds are visible today too. On nearly every measure of education, employment, and health, Native people rank near or at the bottom. The Days were moving from a small cabin near the Nett Lake Reservation, one of three land-holdings of their tribe. The family often didn't have what the rest of the country considered modern necessities: running water, electricity, a car. She hauled water," remembers Dorene Day, the youngest. We picked berries and she made pies and she sold them on the side of the road.

Clyde was a hunter-trapper, renowned in the area for his skills. He also earned money as a hunting guide for white people. He taught the kids how to fish and set snare lines, and how he built birch bark canoes, toboggans, and snowshoes. The biggest event of the year came in the fall.

Just about every Anishinaabe would climb into a canoe to harvest wild rice High desert mid 50s swm wanted the lakes and streams. Native kids weren't expected to start school again until the end of September, after the harvest was done. Their parents raised them Midewiwinthe spiritual way of life traditionally practiced by the Anishinaabeg Ojibwe, Odawa, and Potawatomi. Charlotte and Clyde didn't call it that though, Sharon said.

Practicing Indigenous religions was largely against the law, and people had to hide their sacred objects lest they be confiscated by church or government officials and destroyed, or put in a museum. They didn't risk having sweat lodges or large ceremonies, but Clyde did teach his children their history. Sharon remembers that he would take them outside under a tree to tell them about their migration story, tracing in the ground the path the Ojibwe people traveled hundreds of years before from the Atlantic coast westward, following a prophecy to travel until they found the place where food grows on the water.

I don't know why," Sharon said, "but he would turn over the coffee can — Arco coffee.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

And he would sing and then we would dance. Charlotte and Clyde could speak and write fluently in Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwebut they mostly spoke English to their 17 children because they wanted the kids to succeed in school and in the wider world. When the Day family arrived in Cleveland, they moved into a hotel. That was a typical landing place for new arrivals, along with the YMCA.

After two weeks, all eight of them were living in a two-bedroom apartment in the poorest part of the city. Cleveland was a shock, not just the size of the place, but everything about it.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

They had never met black people before. I remember my sister Cheryl saying, 'What happened to these people? These people are all burnt. It was summer, so the kids didn't have school. Back in northern Minnesota, they had been free to go wherever they wanted. In the city, their mom was too afraid to let them go anywhere.

They felt isolated. During the day, their dad went out looking for work. The BIA had promised Clyde a good-paying job. He could operate heavy machinery. But all he could find was a job as a dishwasher, which didn't pay enough to support his family.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

But the BIA wouldn't pay for people to return to their reservations. Relocation was a one-way trip. In the late s, a group of venerable white men selected by President Harry Truman began working in Washington, D. This group was the Hoover Commission, named after its chairman, former president Herbert Hoover. Their job was to figure out how to cut federal spending and streamline the executive branch. They released those findings in an report in In addition to examining welfare, social security, and education, the commission looked closely at Native Americans and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

Educating them properly has proved extremely difficult," re the report. And they recommended the government eliminate tribal governments and reservations, too. Discussion of assimilating Native Americans was often dripping with eugenic overtones. The Hoover Commission reported, matter-of-factly, "The Indian population is no longer a pure ethnic group. Rather it represents a melange of 'full bloods' and people of mixed ancestry. Another government-sponsored reporton the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, spent several s detailing the marriage trends between "full bloods," "half bloods" and "quarter bloods.

However, there wasn't enough intermarriage between whites and Native people, the author lamented.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

At the time, "blackness" was defined according to the "one-drop rule," but white America believed "Indianness" could be washed away in just a few generations through intermarriage with whites. This contradictory logic was self-serving for white Americans.

More black Americans meant more workers to exploit. Fewer Native Americans meant more land to take. And, in line with that self-serving logic, federal politicians and bureaucrats believed Native Americans wanted to melt away into the mainstream.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

And they had earned it because of their efforts in the war. Why would they if they're out fighting for the United States in the Pacific and in the European and African theaters? This is in the context of United States people wanting to rally around sort of one consensus cultural identity. Native Americans enlisted to serve with an enthusiasm paradoxical to the hardships they had been subjected to. Among some tribes, as many as 70 percent of eligible men served. All told, around 70, Native Americans left their reservations, often for the very first time, to serve overseas or work in war industries in big cities.

One U. Senator, D. Worth Clark of Idaho, described Native Americans as "an inspiration to patriotic Americans everywhere. But when the war ended inNative Americans returned home to find their reservations had become poorer in their absence. Many moved away again to find jobs in cities, and conditions on reservations became even more desperate. The post-war boom never reached Indian Country. Most Native people living on or near reservations didn't have electricity or running water.

The ro and schools and hospitals were High desert mid 50s swm wanted disrepair, if the reservations had them at all. Native people were much more likely to die from the flu or pneumonia. Infant mortality was several times higher than elsewhere in the nation.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

There'd been a tuberculosis epidemic for at least 50 years Dorene's grandparents died from it. The life expectancy of American Indians in the s was 44 years. For white Americans, it was 70 years. Reservations had been poor since they were created in the mids. With each successive federal policy, they seemed to become only smaller and poorer. The Dawes Act offor example, did irreparable damage. It chopped up reservations into homeste and opened up millions of acres of "surplus land" to white settlers. Individual land ownership was supposed to "civilize" Native people. But little thought was given to how the land was divvied up, so High desert mid 50s swm wanted ended up with parcels too small or dry to do anything with.

Those who wanted to farm and knew how often couldn't get loans to get started. Many had to sell their land to survive or pay the taxes. Then, the government forced Native children into boarding schools to be assimilated into the white, Christian mainstream. The founder of the first school summed up his educational philosophy as "Kill the Indian, Save the Man. Many children died and were buried in mass graves or unmarked cemeteries.

The BIA, which had near-absolute control over Native people's lives, was also underfunded, incompetent, and sometimes corrupt. Even the federal government's own assessment of Indian Country — detailed in the Meriam Report of — laid the blame for its problems squarely at the feet of the federal officials, whose policies "would tend to pauperize any race. One way the Hoover Commission recommended the government help Native people was to encourage "young employable Indians and the better cultured families" to leave reservations for cities. Congress soon piloted the idea with two tribes.

The Navajo and Hopi reservations had been devastated by blizzards in winter The U. Pressured by public outcry over the poor conditions — the Navajo and Hopi Code Talkers had helped beat the Japanese, after all — Congress passed the Navajo-Hopi Rehabilitation Act in that was intended to prevent a similar catastrophe in the future. It appropriated tens of millions of dollars in funding to improve conditions on those two reservations. But Congress didn't believe the Navajo reservation, about the size of West Virginia, could support the 55, people living there.

Where in the government was getting rid of "surplus land," in it was concerned about "surplus people. So, they set aside some of the new money to move Navajo and Hopi to cities. The government considered it a success. And then, the BIA got a new commissioner who decided to turn urban relocation into a national program. His name was Dillon S. He had just finished leading another massive, government-run relocation program: the forced relocation of more thanJapanese-Americans to what the government called internment camps and then on to cities scattered across the country.

Myer brought with him the same strategy and many of High desert mid 50s swm wanted same officials, including one Charles Miller, who had earned the moniker "the great mover of people" for his work on Japanese-American imprisonment and on a program that moved impoverished Jamaicans to the United States. Myer viewed reservations as prison camps for Native Americans.

High desert mid 50s swm wanted

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