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Earth is very old and many of its features were formed before people came along to study them. For that reason, studying Earth now is like detective work— using clues to uncover fascinating stories. The work of Earth science researchers is very much like the work of forensic scientists at a crime scene. In both fields, the ability to put events in their proper order is the key to unraveling the hidden story. From the clues in the illustration, sequence the events listed above in the order in which they happened.
In your story, justify the order of the events. B Determining the relative ages of rock formations Relative dating is an Earth science term that describes the set of principles and techniques used to sequence geologic events and determine the Relative dating investigation 18b answers age of rock formations.
Below are graphics that illustrate some of these basic principles used by geologists. You will find that these concepts are easy to understand. Write the letter of the explanation in the space provided under each graphic. Explanations: A. In undisturbed rock layers, the oldest layer is at the bottom and the youngest layer is at the top.
In some rock formations, layers or parts of layers may be missing. This is often due to erosion. Erosion by water or wind removes sediment from exposed surfaces. Erosion often leaves a new flat surface with some of the original material missing. Sediments are originally deposited in horizontal layers. Any feature that cuts across rock layers is younger than the layers. Sedimentary layers or lava flows extend sideways in all directions until they thin out or reach a barrier. Any part of a rock layer, like a piece of stone, is older than the layer containing it. C Sequencing events in a geologic cross-section Understanding how a land formation was created with its many layers of soil begins with the same time-ordering process you used in Part 1.
Geologists use logical thinking and geology Relative dating investigation 18b answers like the ones described in Part 2 to determine the order of events for a geologic formation. Cross-sections of Earth, like the one shown below, are our best records of what has happened in the past.
Rock bodies in this cross-section are labeled A through H. One of these rock bodies is an intrusion. Intrusions occur when molten rock called magma penetrates into layers from below. The magma is always younger than the layers that it penetrates. Likewise, a fault is always younger than the layers that have faulted. A fault is a crack or break occurs across rock layers, and the term faulting is used to describe the occurrence of a fault.
The broken layers may move so that one side of the fault is higher than the other. Faulted layers may also tilt. Put the rock bodies illustrated below in order based on when they formed. Relative to the other rock bodies, when did the fault occur?
Justify your answer. D How do they know what is down there? The cross section diagram from part 3 shows various geologic features present underground very clearly. But how do geologists know what is down there?
To get a clear understanding of what is underground geologists extract core samples from the ground. A core sample is a solid cylinder of the material that makes up the ground itself.
Geologists obtain a core sample by drilling down into the ground with a large, hollow drill bit. The exposed layers in the core sample can be examined, identified, and labeled, showing geologists what is underground. The geologists fill in the missing spaces using principles of Relative Dating.
Give it a try for yourself. Below are 15 core samples from 4 Relative Dating Investigation 18B an area these are oversized; actual core samples would be much thinner. They are labeled A— O. Use the diagram to answer questions a-d below. Do you see evidence of a fault in your core samples?
Describe the evidence of any fault you see and list the letters of the Relative dating investigation 18b answers samples that you think show the fault. Do you see evidence of an intrusion in your core samples? Describe the evidence of any intrusion you see and list the letters of the core samples that you think show the intrusion. If so, describe how you can tell and where it may have been.
Which happened first, the fault or the stream? How can you tell? Place the stream, fault, and intrusion in chronological order. Related documents. Finding Clues to Rock Layers. Guided Reading Question Chapter Determining Relative Ages. Can you determine the relative ages of rock layers? Continental Drift. Geologic Time Webquest. Download advertisement. Add this document to collection s. You can add this document to your study collection s in Available only to authorized users.
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18B Relative Dating